Neurology is a branch of medicine that is concerned with the operation, disorders and diseases encompassing the nervous system of the human body.
What is Neurology?
The brain is made up of billions and billions of neurons that have the power to generate specific signals. In return, they can also receive and transmit these signals from their surrounding cells. The word ‘neuron’ is translated into ‘nerve’ and ‘logia’ implies ‘the study of which together forms the term ‘neurology’.
The field of neurology broadly studies:
• The central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system along with the autonomic nervous system
• Any deficiencies or imperfections in the nervous system as a result of possible functional and structural conditions caused by any degenerative conditions
Neurological disorders and their impact are dramatically variable between different age groups, primarily, infants, young children and adults. In order to arrive at a diagnosis, those experiencing neurological symptoms should consult a neurologist who is an expert in treating conditions of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Neurology – Areas of Care
Neurology has several areas of care including:
Autonomic Neurology: There are quite a few autonomic disorders that are assessed and treated, including:
Cancer Neurology: Neurological cancers are:
Cognitive and Behavioural Neurology: The following cognitive and behavioural neurology related conditions are:
Neuropsychiatric disorders that are secondary to the conditions include:
A broad range of cognitive disorders that fall under Cognitive and Behavioural Neurology are:
Critical Care Neurology: The conditions treated are:
Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders
General Neurology: General neurology has several conditions that are treated including:
Movement Disorders: The following conditions that affect a patient’s movement capabilities:
Neurological Infections and Inflammatory Diseases: The range of conditions that experts are able to treat under infections and inflammatory diseases include:
Neuromuscular Diseases and EMG: Areas of care under neuromuscular disorder includes:
Diseases of the neuromuscular transmission
Motor Neuron Diseases:
Neuro-ophthalmology: Some of the treatable conditions are:
Migraines and Headaches: Types of headaches and some of the most complex migraine conditions include:
Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Disorders: Some of the common conditions that are treatable are:
Spinal Cord Disorders: Areas of care for spinal cord disorders are:
Structural disorders of the spine, for example,
Transverse myelitis and other inflammatory diseases of spinal cord like,
Infections of the spinal cord
Vascular disorders of the spinal cord, including,
Spinal cord trauma
Spinal cord disorders associated with other systemic diseases, for example,
Genetic disorders of the spinal cord, such as,
Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Symptoms of Neurological Conditions
Symptoms of neurological conditions may greatly differ depending on the type of disorder and also the particular region of the body that has been affected by it.
In some cases, there may be emotional symptoms that may include:
• If you experience sudden mood swings
• If you go through abrupt outbursts
• If you are constantly feeling depressed
• If you are delusional
Some physical symptoms may be indicative of a neurological condition such as:
• If you have partial or total paralysis
• If you note that your muscles feel unusually weak
• If there is a partial or complete loss of sensation
• If you experience seizures
• If you have difficulty reading and writing
• If you notice that your cognitive abilities are deteriorating
• If you suffer from unexplained pain
• If you observe a lack in alertness
Causes of Neurological Conditions
The causes of neurological conditions are strikingly diverse. Multiple membranes insulate the spinal cord and the brain. Both may be susceptible to pressure and force. The underlying peripheral nerves located under the skin is also vulnerable to impairments. Neurological conditions may impact either a single neuron or a complete neurological route. The minutes of disturbance to the structural path of the neuron can cause dysfunction.
Broadly categorising the causes for neurological conditions:
• Lifestyle-related causes
• Nutrition-related causes
• Environmental influences
• Physical injuries
There are around 600 odd neurological conditions that may impact the brain along with the central and autonomic nervous systems. In order to evaluate the damage to the nervous system, the diagnostic process is complex.
The neurological consultation begins with a thorough physical examination. Some of the common diagnostic screenings that may be prescribed by your neurologist may include the following:
• Computed tomography scan also called a CT or CAT scan
• Electroencephalogram or EEG
• Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI
• Electrodiagnostic tests, such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
• EP or Evoked potential
• Positron emission tomography or PET
• Arteriogram also called an angiogram
• Spinal tap also called a lumbar puncture
• Ultrasound or Sonography
• EEG Monitoring
The comprehension and analysis of symptoms play an essential part in defining how the treatment plan will advance in case of neurological conditions. However, the commonly accepted forms of treatment include:
• Therapies for Neurological Disorders: As part of the treatment plan, the neurologist may place a patient in a rehabilitation centre with the objective of restoring lost functionality in specific areas. This is a constructive endeavour to drive to patient towards recovery.
• Cognitive Therapy Treatments: A complementary method of treating neurological disorders is through cognitive behavioural therapy which was earlier known as talk therapy. This custom of treatment deliberates on remodelling the thoughts and behaviour of the patient that connects to their exclusive incapacity.
• Surgical Options: For the best patient results, surgical therapy for neurological conditions, specifically the brain and spine is reliant on the use of the most innovative medical technology along with the proficiencies of a highly trained neurosurgeon. Surgical operations include:
About the Department
The Department of Neurology at Fortis Hospital in Chennai is a frontrunner at treating patients experiencing all types of neurological disorders. All those who choose to partner with Fortis, Chennai have access to personalised care regardless of the severity of the patient’s neurological condition. Supported by groundbreaking research, patients receive the latest therapeutic approach administered by skilled experts who are committed to adopting advanced technological practices.
Many of our neurologists and neurosurgeons have been distinguished for their cutting-edge work in neurological sciences through their continued clinical work and research efforts, both on national and international platforms. The team as a collaborative unit together is focussed on finding innovative treatment paths that are aimed at reducing and eventually eliminating the overwhelming consequences of all types of neurological disorders.
The substance of the department is based on the fundamental principles of accomplishing excellence in service, application of pioneering medical procedures, striving to boost the skillset and approaches of treating neurological conditions and being immersed in constructive research in the discipline of neurology. Superiority in day-to-day patient care along with outstanding service to the patients and their families is something that helps Fortis, Chennai to guarantee that their core values continue to be the foundation of this healthcare establishment.